Archive for the ‘Energy’ Category

Sun energy – free source …

Sun is a medium sized star which rotates around its axis. Its age is estimated at 4600 million years, which is considered to half of its lifespan. The sun is composed of about 75% hydrogen, 24% helium and 1% other elements.

The total power that the sun reveals in the surrounding area is 3,8 x 1026 W from every square meter of surface solar radiation is emitted with power of 63.11 MW. Earth’s distance from the sun is about 150 million kilometers and the total output of solar radiation received only an insignificant part. However, the amount of energy that Earth receives is immense and annually is 10,000 times the current annual energy needs of mankind.

Solar energy is due to Earth electromagnetic radiation, which can be converted into various forms of energy: thermal, chemical, mechanical, electrical. Most successful is its conversion into thermal energy at this conversion can be reached temperatures up to 35,000 degrees Celsius. For everyday use and for use in many industrial processes, most applications are devices that operate at temperatures below 1000 ° C. The spectrum of use of solar energy as alternative is great: to produce heat (for hot water, heating and cooling of rooms, cooking), to produce electricity (photovoltaic, thermal systems), transport (solar vehicles), natural lighting, for desalination, for photosynthesis, etc..

How much Macedonia uses sun energy as free ecological resource?

According to research experts, Macedonia has excellent geographical and climatic conditions for utilizing solar energy. The characteristics of solar radiation indicate that the intensity of solar radiation in our country is favorable for energy and the maximum is in western Macedonia – Ohrid, where he reached in 1590 kWh/m2. The average number of sunny hours in Macedonia during the 12 months, taking the range of measurements from 2001 to 2009, was 2199.9 hours of sunshine annually. Although Macedonia is surrounded by benefits in terms of abundance of sunny days throughout the year, the researchers warn that here is a very small percentage of utilization of solar energy. It is due to many reasons – the low economic standards, legislation that will offer long term support, strategic commitment and dedication, awareness among politicians and citizens and so forth.

According to the project for sectoral cooperation in financing energy efficiency in buildings within the EU regulations and binding documents whose deadline for implementation is 2011-2012, it is expected to raise awareness about the impact of EU accession on the construction sector and construction materials to contribute to the development of financial instruments and mechanisms in order to develop a market for energy efficient products and methods in the partner countries.
Projects related to solar energy and its application in Macedonia noted that solar energy can be our important energy resource because the estimated cost of 1 kWh heat over 25 years working solar systems is 0.017 euros. On the other hand the operation of solar systems is not related to emissions and thus environmental impact is positive. It is estimated that if Macedonia ensure the installation of 700 MW capacity solar thermal systems, will be open at least 3,000 new jobs in research and development, education, training, production, design, installation, servicing, maintenance, trading, etc.

Energy from biomass …

Biomass is biodegradable part of products, waste and residues from agricultural production (of plant or animal origin), forestry and related industries. Energy from biomass comes in solid, liquid (such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biometanol) and gaseous state (eg biogas, gas from the gasification of biomass and landfill gas).
Biomass is a renewable source of energy and generally can be categorized as wood, non-wood and animal wastes, which are:

  •      wood biomass (forestry residues, waste wood)
  •      grown wood biomass (fast-growing trees),
  •      grown non-wood biomass (fast-growing algae and grasses)
  •      debris and waste from agriculture,
  •      animal waste and debris,
  •      urban and industrial waste.

The main advantage of using biomass as an energy source is a wealth of resources, ability to use not only of crops planted for that purpose but also waste from agriculture and food industry. Gases that are created when using the biomass, can also be used for energy production.

The advantage of biomass compared with fossil fuels are far lower emissions of harmful gases and waste generated. It is estimated that the load of the atmosphere with CO2 when we use biomass as fuel is negligible because the amount of CO2 released during combustion is equal to the amount of CO2 absorbed during the growth of plants.

Energy from biomass in Macedonia

Macedonia is an agricultural country and has a large amount of waste from agriculture, which now is unused at fields and usually is ignite, but from biomass and wastes from agricultural production could be produced from 20 to 30 percent of electricity needs in the country.

Eastern mountain region is the first in realizing the use of biomass as an energy source. According to the Study of energy production in the Eastern mountain region, made in 2010, as sources of biomass for getting energy would be agriculture, forestry, logging, cultivation of crops and waste. In addition, electricity could be produced in case of a 79% material from agricultural residues, 12% of residues from wood processing and 9% of the residue after harvesting. According to the Study, from all sources, electricity would have potential of 53 gigawatt hours of power that would be installed in total by 5.3 megawatts.
At the end of 2009 has started the project “From Biomass to Energy” by signing a memorandum of cooperation between the governments of Macedonia and Italy, and implement by paper plant from Kocani “Hartija” in partnership with the Italian company “Eureka.” Project is planned to bring many benefits – to protect the environment from large amounts of carbon dioxide, while farmers receive economic benefits. This project will help factory “Hartija” instead of fuel oil for production of technical steam to use rice shell; corn, wheat or rice straw, and wood, as renewable energy sources.
Macedonia has great potential for using energy from renewable sources, but must update existing technology for production of this kind of energy.

Geothermal energy – future of energy …

Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy sources and in different perspective is present everywhere. Environmentaly the most usable and economicaly most cost effective. To generate heat, which further turns the turbines of geothermal power plants, there is no need for burning any kind of raw material, which means that there is no pollution of the environment. In fact, there is heat coming from beneath the earth’s crust. It is important that geothermal power plants are built in locations where geothermal soureces are, which means there are no additional charges for transportation of raw materials, so that makes them quite economical. Geothermal energy can be relatively cheap to exploit. To receive the electricity from geothermal sources, source should be much more lucrative and water temperature to be higher. Just as information, the first geothermal power plant in the world is built in Larderelo, Italy, 1914th.

Macedonia in the center of geothermal largness

Republic of Macedonia is among the countries that are relatively rich in geothermal resources and it is one of the richest areas with geothermal waters of the Balkans, but utilization of this environmentally cleanest energy source is almost on the initial level. In Macedonia are recorded over 25 natural sources of geothermal waters with temperatures greater than 21 degrees, and there are 18 spots with thermal waters: Volkovo, Strnovec, Podlog, Krupiste, Istibanja, Trkanje, Banja, Smokvica, L’dzhi, Topli dol, Toplik, Mrezicko, Gornicet, Povishica, Dobrevo, Raklesh, Toplec, Deribash. Macedonia can ensure the production of significant amounts of electricity if more seriousely turns its interes at Kratovo – Zletovo volcanic area where in the depth of 6,5 to 9,8 thousand feet are huge amounts of warm water with a temperature of 120 to 130 degrees Celsius.

Macedonia is currently exploiting about fifty sites which mainly are concentrated in the southeast – Strumica, Kocani, Stip, Gevgelija, Kumanovo, Vinicko. As an opportunity for economic prosperity are available geothermal waters with a capacity of 1300 liters per second, and now used about a thousand liters. Kocani geothermal pool is the largest in the Balkans – the exploitation of about one million cubic meters annually, with a temperature of 76 degrees Celsius and saving of 4,000 tonnes of fuel oil.

Last month there was presentation on the project “Geothermal Energy in Macedonia – Kocani depression” in order to promote the geothermal potential with particular emphasis on Kocani Basin. According to the Strategy for using renewable energy sources in Macedonia until 2020, it is anticipated that the geothermal water will produce 400 to 440 gigawatt-hours of electricity.

Wind – an alternative energy source …

Wind is air movement. Wind power comes from the sun. When it warms, it heats the earth. Air over land becomes warmer than that over water. As warm air is easier it rises above in the atmosphere and cold air tends to take his place.

Wind energy is one of the oldest types of energy used from time immemorial. Today, wind energy is mainly used for electricity production. Wind is renewable and free energy source because the wind will blow as long as the sun shines and will never come to his deficiency.

Windmills in Macedonia – a healthy and environmentally friendly energy source
Macedonia is one of the countries that offer tremendous potential for energy from renewable sources. Foreign investors are largely interested in investments in windmills.

Southeast region is most suitable part of Macedonia to generate electricity by utilizing wind energy. Taken as an example, Ovce Pole region is a region where wind is a constant occurrence and an average strength of eight meters per second, which is no problem to move the windmill with a magnitude of two megawatts.

According to a feasibility study to build a Wind park, prepared under the CARDS program of the European Commission as the most suitable territories is taking the territory of the municipality Bogdanci. There are already announced that this autumn there will start to build the first Wind park. It would be an area of 29 hectares and would have 15 to 18 windmills, each with a capacity of 2 to 3 megawatts. The total planned annual production of electricity is more than 100 gigawatt / hours, and installed about 45 megawatts of power.

By investing in alternative energy sources besides the preservation of environmental quality that would decrease the import dependency of Macedonia electricity. On the other hand, Macedonia has an obligation to the European Union by 20 per cent of electricity production from renewable sources of energy, in the energy balance of the country.

Energy – we are depend of …

First, several important things about energy.

Energy is the capacity of a physical system to do work.

Universal symbol for energy is the uppercase letter E, and standard unit in is joule, symbolized by J.

Energy has its primary sources and forms.

Basic sources of energy found in nature are:

  • Energy from the Sun
  • Energy from the Earth
  • Energy of gravity

Basic forms of energy are:

1. Gathered energy (known as the accumulated energy) which include:

  • Energy of position (potential)
  • Energy of movement (kinetic)
  • Internal energy

2. Transformed energy – energy that passes from one to another form or energy. It is the energy which occurs when the accumulated energy is crossing from one body to another. Transforming the energy passes through several forms (which are interrelated and short), which defined as:

  • Primary (natural) energy – the energy that comes directly from primary sources of energy,
  • Secondary energy – primary energy stepped into another form through the technical process,
  • The final energy – energy that comes to the user (eg electricity)
  • Useful (applied) energy – the energy which the user uses (mechanical, thermal, light, chemical).

Natural (primary) forms of energy, based on its durability and opportunities for their extraction can be classified as:

1. Non-renewable forms of energy

  • fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
  • nuclear fuel

2. Renewable forms of energy

  • energy of water power (energy of water flows, sea currents and waves, tides)
  • energy from biomass (biogas, including both wood and organic waste)
  • energy from solar radiation
  • wind energy
  • geothermal energy

It is particularly important to know that every transformation of energy occur losses. Therefore most important task of the energetich must be energy economy in the process of transformation of energy from primary to useful form. Our task as users of energy must be careful, smart and economical use of energy.

EU Sustainable Energy Week 2011

The EU Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW 2011), 11 to 15 April 2011, this year celebrates its fifth edition, and it is the key annual event of the Sustainable Energy Europe Campaign, which showcases activities dedicated to energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions.

It aims to demonstrate to businesses, decision-makers and the wider public that sustainable energy technologies are viable, cost-effective and good for the environment and our economy. Through a series of events the EUSEW 2011 puts the emphasis on latest innovations in smart energy solutions and renewable energy technologies.

We will use the coming days to write about how much Macedonia has the potential for using renewable energy sources and how potentials are exploit.

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